Top 7 Symptoms of African Trypanosomiasis

17-12-2022 7 10 0 0 Báo lỗi

African trypanosomiasis, sometimes referred to as "sleeping sickness," is brought on by tiny parasites of the Trypanosoma brucei species. African trypanosomiasis, popularly known as sleeping sickness, has two distinct forms, each of which has the name of a historical location in Africa. The parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is the cause of East African trypanosomiasis. The parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the cause of West African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse fly, which is only found in rural Africa, is responsible for the transmission of both kinds of African trypanosomiasis. Let's take a look the symptoms of African Trypanosomiasis.

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With African trypanosomiasis, a bite by the tsetse fly is often painful and can develop into a red sore, also called a chancre. The process of infection with fascioliasis occurs in two stages: the first phase when the parasite is found in the blood and lymphatic system, followed by the second phase after the parasite enters the central nervous system. The disease will progress to the second stage within a few weeks. The patient will have an erratic fever and accompanied by chills, headache, high blood pressure.

Usually, the patient will have a fever in 3 to 4 days if detected in time. On the contrary, if you ignore the symptoms and let them last, the disease is easy to recur and the fever lasts. You should monitor the bite regularly and especially monitor the change in body temperature after being bitten by a fly. If you suspect you may have African trypanosomiasis, you need to contact your healthcare provider immediately. There are a number of tests that can be done to look for parasites (eg, skin biopsy, blood tests, and lumbar puncture).
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Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoa that causes the infectious disease known as African Trypanosomiasis, is spread through the bite of the Glossinia fly. When bitten by an African fly, nodules develop at the site of the fly's bite from a few days to 2 weeks. The patient's immune system is destroyed, which affects the central nervous system. In the Gambian form, this stage usually occurs months to years after onset. In the Rhodesian form, the onset of the disease is more extensive, and infiltration of the nervous system is usually present within a few weeks.

Conditions involving the central nervous system can lead to severe and persistent headaches, and eventually coma. However, in some patients, this condition can appear suddenly and go away quickly but often repeats so you should not be subjective but need to monitor them. You may experience a sudden headache on one side of your head or both, leaving you exhausted and lacking in energy. Untreated patients will die from coma due to exhaustion or secondary infection.
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Swollen lymph nodes

When bitten by a fly, the virus gradually attacks the immune system. African Trypanosomiasis disease appears suddenly, occurring 1 to 10 days (usually 2 to 4 days) after exposure, with headache, and fever. Within 24 to 48 hours, nodular lesions will appear in the exposed area (fingers, arms, eyes, roof of the mouth), except for glandular or typhoid-like forms. The papule quickly becomes pustular and ulcerated, the mouth clears to a small, thin, colourless number.

The sores are usually solitary but may be multiple in the mouth or eyes. Usually, only one eye is affected. Regional lymph nodes swell and may fester and burst. A typhoid-like state usually develops by day 5 and the patient may develop atypical pneumonia, sometimes with delirium. After a fly sting, continuous saline dressings are beneficial for major skin lesions and may reduce the severity of lymphadenitis. Patients need to go to the hospital for timely treatment by doctors.
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Aching muscles and joints

The virus will directly attack muscle tissue after being bitten by an African fly. When entering the body, the virus attaches to the cell as a parasite, causing the cell to die in large numbers. The dead cells will release damage-associated molecules (DAMP) that stimulate the body's innate immune system at a moderate level to help the body recover quickly. Sometimes this situation is exaggerated leading to the formation of Cytokine storms that cause persistent muscle and joint pain.

Next, through an inflammatory response that leads to increased blood lactate levels, decreased intracellular pH, and low oxygen levels, causing muscle fatigue similar to muscle fatigue after strenuous exercise. Hypercoagulability and inflammation of blood vessels in and around nerves and muscles aggravate the lack of blood supply to the muscle. Patients often experience muscle aches, and pain in the limbs and joints. If the African Trypanosomiasis condition persists for a long time, it can lead to paralysis, so you need to see a doctor as soon as the initial symptoms appear.
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Skin rash

Skin rash is one of the most popular symptoms of African Trypanosomiasis. For humans, after being bitten by a tsetse fly, the victim can contract a disease called sleeping sickness caused by the parasite Trypanosoma spread from the sting. The nodule develops at the site of a fly bite from a few days to 2 weeks. The skin rash develops into a dark red, painful, unsaturated, possibly ulcerated nodule (trypanosomal chancre). It usually begins with a tingling, itching, or burning sensation around the mouth. Then, small fluid-filled sores appear, usually at the edges of the lower lip.

Many people mistake the skin rash of African Trypanosomiasis for a normal skin rash. This makes the patient only buy itch medicine to apply, but the disease does not go away. However, with some other causes or after a period of time with more widespread manifestations, it is very dangerous. These cases, if not treated promptly, will cause many complications, especially in the case of children with a red rash without fever.
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Irritability and extreme fatigue

When the virus from the fly enters the body of the sick person, they will feel extremely uncomfortable and tired. Fever, severe headache, irritability, extreme fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, and muscle and joint pain are common symptoms of sleeping sickness. Some people develop skin rashes. Progressive confusion, personality changes, and other neurological problems occur after the infection invades the central nervous system. Symptoms usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks of an infected bite.

Fatigue is a constant feeling of tiredness or weakness and can be physical, mental, or a combination of both. Fatigue is not just being tired or sleepy. Besides fatigue, the patient is often irritable due to the virus affecting health. Tired people feel so exhausted that exhaustion disrupts their daily lives. If left untreated, the infection gets worse and death occurs within a few months. By understanding the difference between irritability and other factors that cause fatigue, you can find the right treatment and start feeling energized again.
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When the virus from the fly spreads into your body, the patient goes into a state of extreme confusion. Confusion is a quality or state of confusion or uncertainty. These refer to a loss of orientation or the ability to place oneself in the world by time, place, and personal identity. Symptoms of confusion include problems with short-term memory, difficulty performing tasks, poor concentration, unclear voice, and difficulty following conversations. Gradually, you will become mentally disturbed.

Psychosis is sometimes accompanied by disturbances of consciousness and memory loss. These disorders include the inability to focus attention; various cognitive impairments and disorientation in time or space. Sometimes the confusion can be temporary and will pass. Sometimes the confusion is long-lasting and is due to a permanent condition. If you meet someone who is wandering, be aware that they may be fearful, unable to communicate properly, and may have health problems that affect their understanding and mobility. If not treated in time, African sleeping sickness will cause memory loss in patients.

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